# keynesian model of income determination notes

The total expenditure of an economy can be divided in to four categories of spending. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. So we can write: Y = C + I . Keynes is considered to be the greatest economist of the 20, Propensity to consume (Consumption function). In the income‐expenditure model, the equilibrium level of real GDP is the level of real GDP … Consequently, the AD schedule also moves from C + I to C + I + ΔI. The increase in investment would result in the equal increase of income, which is described as follows: When the income of individuals increases to Rs. Therefore, the shift in AD schedule is because of the shifts in investment schedule. On the other hand, the four-sector model contains households, businesses, government, and foreign sector.Let us discuss these three types of models of income determination given by Keynes. . The Basic Framework of the Keynesian Model  This model suggests that TE drives the economy  Along the 45 0 line, the economy is at equilibrium TE Y (Aggregate income and aggregate output) 45 0 TE = Y Along this 45 0 line the amount on the vertical axis is exactly equal to the amount on the x-axis. e. Keeps the prices of goods and services, supply of factors of production, and production technique constant throughout the life cycle of organization. The SIMPLE KEYNESIAN MODEL OF INCOME DETERMINATION 2. Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail. Equilibrium level of income and output is determined where, AD=AS 2) Planned saving =planned investment. Therefore in case the rate of MPC is lower, the value of multiplier would also be lower. This aspect was neglected by economists for over 100 years. 2. The two-sector model of economy involves households and businesses only, while three-sector model represents households businesses, and government. From 1929-1941, the United States (and the world) was in a huge economic depression, in the U.S. the official unemployment rate was … This is exactly what we intend to do in the remaining … 6.1 in which along the X-axis national income is measured and along the Y-axis the amount of consumption is measured. However, shifts in consumption schedule are very rare as it is an income function, whereas investment schedule can fluctuate because of autonomous factors, such as risks and individual perceptions. In such a case, the rate of multiplier would be one. This so-called Keynesian revolution was grounded in a new theory of income determination; a theory based on the concept of: Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! In the economy, as one man's expenditure is another man's income, the total expenditure of the economy must be equivalent to the total income. Propensity to consume (Consumption function). As a result, businesses would have a pile of unsold stocks. Therefore, the AD can be represented by the following formula: Therefore, AD schedule is also termed as C+I schedule. 700. Candidates who are pursuing in Class 12 are advised to revise the notes from this post. In this method, the equilibrium point is achieved when the following condition is satisfied: As, C + S = Y, therefore, the equilibrium condition of national income determination would become: At equilibrium point, the consumption is equal to: Substituting the value of C in the national income equilibrium condition, we get: For the determination of national income with the help of income-expenditure approach, let us assume that the consumption function is C = 200 + 0.50Y and I = 150. 1. Share Your PPT File. 8o. In this figure, a line OZ making 45° angle with the X-axis, has been drawn. 200 billion, which represents the national income of the economy. 200 billion of income level, aggregate supply and aggregate demand are equal. Suppose the autonomous investment increases by Rs. In a logical sense, there is a time gap between an increase in income with the corresponding increase in autonomous investment. 700. For determining national income, Keynes had divided the different sources of income into four sectors namely’ household sector, business sector, government sector, and foreign sector. The central proposition of the simple Keynesian model (the SKM) is that national output (income) reaches its equilibrium value when output is equal to aggregate demand. In the SKM the condition for equilibrium can be expressed as: Y = E – (1) Keynes is considered to be the greatest economist of the 20th century. For example, in Figure-6, the shift in the equilibrium position from E1 to E2 is the result of change in investment (ΔI) without any time lag. Aggregate demand and aggregate supply schedule intersect each other at point E and the Income level at this point is Rs. TOS4. 200 billion; therefore, households are not willing to buy them. We know that national income (Y) is equal to consumption demand (C) plus investment demand (I). As Keynes was interested in the immediate problems of the short run, he ignored the aggregate supply function and focused on aggregate demand. The investment schedule is shifting due to the autonomous investment in some venture. Aggregate demand is the total demand for all commodities (goods and services) in the economy. AD schedule is prepared by adding the schedule of C and I. The Keynesian AS curve is drawn based on an assumption that total income is equal to total expenditure. When goods and services produced at a particular point of time is multiplied by the respective prices of goods and services, it provides the total value of the national output. He wrote several books. According to Keynes, there can be different sources of national income, such as government, foreign trade, individuals, businesses and trusts. 80 would become the income for suppliers; therefore, an additional income for suppliers would be Δy2 = Rs. 250, which is less than the aggregate supply. It is also termed as investment multiplier because change produced in national income is due to change in investment. The two types of multiplier are explained in the following points: Refers to a multiplier in which it is assumed that the change in investment and income are simultaneous. Lebanon GDP/person(GDP per capita)=\$7200/year before the crash note; after the crash \$1500/year USA GDP/person=\$52,000/year GDP of nations is not random, it follows a certain path. The concept of multiplier can be understood by determining the relationship between change in national income (ΔY) and change in investment (ΔI). The process of determination of equilibrium level of national income will become clear if we use simple algebra. They are consumption expenditure (C), investment expenditure (I), government expenditure (G) and net expenditure on trade or net exports that is, exports minus imports, (X-M). NOTE: Since the back of the pages are printed in reverse order (last page is printed first), keep the pages in the same order as they were after Step 1. It is important to note that all demand is not effective. The other forms of leakages are idle cash and foreign deposits. There is no time lag between change in investment with respect to change in income. ASF represents cost and ADF represents receipts. The AS curve is also named as Aggregate Expenditure (AE) curve. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Therefore, consumption (C) acts as the major determinant or function of income (Y). As discussed earlier that b can be calculated with the help of the following formula: This is the equation of Marginal Propensity to Consume (MPC). That is Total income(Y) = Total expenditure (AD). These two methods of income determination are classified as income-expenditure approach and saving- investment approach. Investment depends upon the marginal efficiency of capital and the rate of interest. In the economy, as one man's expenditure is another man's income, the total expenditure of the economy must be equivalent to the total income. Therefore, businesses start producing more and more products and services. Suppose investment increases, which leads to a movement in the investment schedule from I to I + ΔI, showing an upward shift. In the Keynesian model of income and output determination, market equilibrium is a state I which aggregate expenditure and aggregate income/output are equal. The relationship between m and MPC can be represented as follows: Table-2 represents the value of multiplier for different values of MPC: Multiplier can also be calculated with the help of Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS). Login to see the comments. Copyright © 2018-2021 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Aggregate demand schedule is drawn by adding C and I schedules. The national output is the aggregate supply in the form of money value. Hence the aggregate demand function is represented as, AD = C+ I + G + (X-M)             ...........              (1), This function shows that the aggregate demand is equal to the sum of expenditure respectively on consumption (C), Investment (I), Government spending (G) and net exports (X-M). AD involves two concepts, namely, AD for consumer goods or consumption (C) and aggregate demand for capital goods or investment (I). (d) Not Applicable under the condition of full employment: Implies that the theory of multiplier does not work in the situation of full employment. That is Total income(Y) = Total expenditure (AD). Refers to the fact the theory of multiplier is based on an assumption that additional income earned by individuals as a result of some autonomous investment is spent on the consumption of goods and services only which is not the real concept. Its main tools are government spending on infrastructure, unemployment benefits, and education. Autonomous investment is taken as a first approximation. In other words, import and export services are absent in such an economy. OUTLINE • Aggregate expenditure: Ø Consumption function Ø Investment function • Aggregate output Ø Short run supply curve • … As Δy = ΔI; therefore, the formula of national income can also be written as follows: Thus, the formula of dynamic multiplier is as follows: Apart from its important uses in macroeconomics, the multiplier also has certain limitations. Comment goes here. The exogenous variables are those fixed, given conditions that comprise the environment in which the system works. ... Keynesian theory of income determination. 200 billion is the equilibrium point for the two-sector economy. Equation Description (1) Y =Z Output equals aggregate demand, an equilibrium condition Mr. B buys a second hand car with that amount from Mr. C. Further, Mr. C deposits the money in a foreign bank. It then shows how to solve for multipliers. The higher the level of employment, higher will be the level of income. The class will be covered in Hindi and the notes will be provided in English. Content Guidelines 2. In Table-1, it can be noticed that at Rs. (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. In this way, the money circulates but the demand for new consumer goods and services is not generated. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. 700. . By substituting the value of consumption in the equation of AD, we get: Let us prepare an AD schedule by assuming that the investment is Rs. In addition the households are the consumers of final goods and services produced by businesses. The correlation between income and expenditure is represented by an angle of 45°, as shown in Figure-2: According to Keynes theory of national income determination, the aggregate income is always equal to consumption and savings. Share Your Word File The households are the owners of factors of production and provide factor services to businesses to earn their livelihood in the form of wages, rents, interest, and profits. The initial equilibrium is at point E, where C+S schedule or AS schedule intersects AD schedule and the level of national income is Y1. Therefore, Rs. The aggregate demand is the sum total of all such spending. These two factors are called by Keynes as aggregate demand function (ADF) and the aggregate supply function (ASF). For example, in the two-sector economy, the government is not involved in activities, such as taxation, expenditure, and consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to study and understand the shifts that arise in AD schedule and determine measures to get the equilibrium position back. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Keynesian model of output determination Output determination=what determines output? 1, 00,000 from a contract. This produces an additional income for suppliers of consumer goods and services that is’ equal to Δy3 = Rs. Privacy Policy3. The Keynesian theory of income determination is presented in three models: i) The two-sector model consisting of the household and the business sectors. Figure-6 demonstrates the shift in national income due to shift in equilibrium point and AD schedule: In Figure-6, C + I schedule represents the initial AD schedule. The value of multiplier depends upon the rate of MPC. The multiplier can be of two types on the basis of its application. Overview Of Keynesian Income And Expenditure Model Economics Essay Introduction: Keynesian economic theory has been named after a British, John Maynard Keynes (1883 – 1946). The equilibrium level of income or output depends on the relationship between the aggregate demand curve and aggregate supply curve. The formula used for aggregate income determination: Aggregate Income = Consumption(C) + Saving (S). Saving-investment approach refers to the method in which the saving (S) and investment (I) are used for the determination of national income. These two factors are Aggregate Supply (AS) and Aggregate Demand (AD) of goods and services. As already mentioned, the point of intersection between the two curves shows the maximum possible employment. Therefore, the value of multiplier is also higher in developing countries. Keynes is considered to be the greatest economist of the 20th century. Keynesian economics is one of the major schools of thought in the current era. For determining national income, Keynes had divided the different sources of income into four sectors namely’ household sector, business sector, government sector, and foreign sector. In the process, the value of Δy decreases continuously from Δy1 > Δy2 > Δy3 to Δyn-1. According to Keynes, effective demand is that point where the ADF and ASF are equal. (1) We also know that the simple Keynesian short-run consumption function is the following: C = a + bY … (2) With the help of Notes, candidates can plan their Strategy for particular weaker section of the subject and study hard. the possibility of macroeconomic equilibrium with unemployment; 2 Great Depression. For example, in Table-1, when the income or aggregate supply is Rs. Your message goes here Post. Cost must not exceed receipt. In such a case, the production by businesses is less than the demand of households. Inducement to invest (Investment function). 64. Δy reaches to zero. It implies that ΔY is 1/1-b times of ΔI and 1/I-b is termed as multiplier (m). In such a case, the national income can be calculated as follows: Therefore, the national income equilibrium in this case is at Rs. In case of static multiplier, when the equilibrium position shifts from one point to another, the aggregate MPC does not show any change. In 1936, Keynes had published The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money , a book that revolutionised economic theory in the same way that Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species revolutionised biology. In such a case, the saving function can be determined as follows: Therefore, in the present case, the saving function would be: At equilibrium point I = S, therefore, the national income equilibrium would be: The national income level at equilibrium point is same in both the cases, income-expenditure approach and saving-investment approach. Equation Description (1) Y =AD Output equals aggregate demand, an equilibrium condition Keynes believed that there are two major factors that determine the national income of a country. d. Contains no profit that is undistributed or savings by the organization. When the entrepreneurs find that their receipts are less than their costs, they will stop offering employment to new workers. Notes Full Name. 12 hours ago Delete Reply Block. The condition for achieving equilibrium with the help of saving-investment approach is that the saving and investment are equal (I = S). Keynes used his income‐expenditure model to argue that the economy's equilibrium level of output or real GDP may not corresPond to the natural level of real GDP. 80(= 100*0.8) Now, the expenditure of Rs. Keynes gives all attention to the ADF. In a … In such a situation, the products and services are costing more than Rs. In the Simple Keynesian Model, the crucial endogenous variable is the level of output (and income), Y. AD refers to the effective demand that is equal to the actual expenditure. Refers to another major limitation of multiplier. Individuals can spend their additional income on various resources, such as clearing dues buying second-hand goods, and purchasing imported goods and shares and debentures. Thus aaggregate demand is the total value of all planned expenditure of all buyers in the economy. Simple keynesian model of income determination 3. Keynes made it clear that the level of employment depends on aggregate demand and aggregate supply. The calculation of ΔY is shown as follows: ΔY = 100 + 100 * (0.8) + 100 * (0.8)2 + 100 * (0.8)3……. According to Keynes, the level of employment depends on total demand and unemployment results as a consequence of a fall in total demand. Aggregate effective demand refers to the aggregate expenditure of an economy in a specific time frame. CBSE Class 12 Commerce Economics Determination Of Income And Employment : Thus, given constant velocity of money V, the quantity of money M 0 will determine the expenditure or aggregate demand equal to M 0 V according to which aggregate demand curve (with flexible prices) is AD 0.It will be seen from panel (d) of Fig. The value of multiplier can be obtained by using the following formula: The series of national income can be generalized as follows: ΔY = Δy + Δy (b) + Δy (b) 2 + Δy (b) 3………… Δy (b) n-1. So, the formula for calculating multiplier with the help of MPS is as follows: Therefore, multiplier can also be termed as the reciprocal of MPS. Keynesian economics is a theory that says the government should increase demand to boost growth. It comprises consumer goods as well as producer goods. A comparison of the classical and the Keynesian models of income determination are given below: The classical and the Keynesian models, given above in the notational form, refer to the working of the macro – level economic system in three markets, i.e. If there is any type of increase or decrease in the aggregate supply/demand, then they themselves fluctuate in a manner, so that they reach back at the equilibrium point. However, over the years, it has become increasingly common to plot real national output/national income on the horizontal axis as economists are more concerned with real national output/national income than with nominal national output/national income. Assuming that ASF is constant, the main basis of Keynesian theory is that employment depends on aggregate demand which itself depends on two factors : 1. A Keynesian equilibrium is maintained until an external force disrupts the pattern of expenditure or output. Some of the limitations of multiplier that need to be considered while using the concept are as follows: Refers to the main limitation of multiplier. The schedule curve after point E represents that the AS is greater than AD (AS > AD). All these resources are termed as leakages in the flow of consumption, which adversely affect the rate of multiplier. On the other hand, the four-sector model contains households, businesses, government, and foreign sector.Let us discuss these three types of models of income determination given by Keynes. In a two-sector economy, a shift in AD schedule occurs due to a shift in consumption or investment schedule or in both, simultaneously. Moreover, the aggregate demand is known as the amount of commodities people want to buy. Loanable funds theory (Neo - classical theory) of Interest, Liquidity preference theory (Keynesian theory) of interest, Keynesian Theory Aggregate Demand : Consumption Function, Keynesian Theory Aggregate Demand : Inducement to invest (Investment function), Rate of interest: Liquidity Preference Theory. back 32. The Keynesian Model of Income Determination This set of notes outlines the Keynesian model of national income determination in closed and open economy. All the important topics will be discussed in detail and would be helpful for aspirants preparing for the CA exam. So, go ahead and check the Important Notes for Class 12 Economics : Macroeconomics – Income Determination. In short-run, the equilibrium point remains constant that is the level of national income remains constant. ﻿ ﻿ Keynesians believe consumer demand is the primary driving force in an economy. In other words, the profit earned by an organization is completely distributed in the form of dividends among shareholders. Simple Keynesian model: components of aggregate demand; equilibrium income; changes in equilibrium, multiplier (investment, Government expenditure, lump-sum tax, foreign trade); determination of equilibrium rate of interest; effect of fiscal and monetary policy; composition of output and policy mix; policy mix in action. Assignment, Reference, Wiki description Explanation, brief detail, go ahead and check the important topics will the! The households are not willing to buy schedule that is total income is to. Planned expenditure of all Planned expenditure of all such spending 12 economics: Macroeconomics – income.. Topics will be covered in Hindi and the rate of multiplier would Δy2! In Class 12 are advised to revise the notes will be provided in..: a, Mr. B of his contract point is Rs dynamic multiplier with the increase... Step 1 to total expenditure ( AE ) curve simultaneous multiplier, simultaneous multiplier, simultaneous multiplier, multiplier! Class will be covered in Hindi and the notes from this, economy. Anything and everything about economics is shifting due to change in income with the corresponding increase in investment! Earned is fully spent on different types of goods and services are costing more the. Profit that is why modern economists also call macro economics is a grand for... Expenditure: Ø consumption function ) as is greater than AD ( as > AD.... ) can be of two types on the basis of circular flow of consumption, which affect! Suppliers would be helpful for aspirants preparing for the CA exam a movement in the Keynesian model the... For aspirants preparing for the determination of equilibrium real GDP, employment, and consumption all these resources termed! Process of dynamic multiplier with the help of notes outlines the Keynesian depends... Schedule that is the sum total of all Planned expenditure of an economy can be of two types on other... And unemployment results as a result, the value of multiplier would also be lower Great! Than AD ( as > AD ) keynes as aggregate expenditure: Ø consumption function Ø investment function • output. Is determined where, AD=AS 2 ) Planned saving =planned investment theory depends the... He attributed unemployment to deficiency in aggregate demand and aggregate supply is Rs preferences and income remains. External force disrupts the pattern of expenditure or output ( ADF ) and aggregate demand and... And he attributed unemployment to deficiency in aggregate demand and aggregate supply intersect! In Hindi and the notes from this, an additional income for suppliers of consumer goods services. Averted, the numerical value of MPC is greater tools are government spending infrastructure! Of Full employment there is no scope of producing additional goods and services ) the. Ii ) the four-sector model consisting of household, business, government and foreign.. As producer goods following assumptions: a the foundation of his contract with respect to in..., his 'The General theory of the 20th century of total keynesian model of income determination notes in the upward direction and the aggregate or... Are termed as leakages in the upward direction and the rate of MPC greater!, Propensity to consume ( consumption function ) particular point of intersection between the aggregate supply function focused! Are idle cash and foreign sectors Q.No.2, his 'The General theory of employment section of the subject and hard... To developed countries rate of multiplier would be higher if the value of MPC multiplier with help! That ΔY is 1/1-b times of ΔI and 1/I-b is termed as equilibrium point remains constant that is total... Relationship between ΔY and ΔI forces in the economy detail and would be Δy2 = Rs following formula therefore... ﻿ Keynesians believe consumer demand is more than the aggregate demand is the equilibrium point reaches to Y2 Share. Households are not willing to buy them additional income for suppliers ; therefore, the shift in AD schedule shifting! Two concepts in detail and would be Δy2 = Rs to 0.8, with no expenditure, and.! And along the Y-axis the amount of consumption, which is less the! ﻿ Keynesians believe consumer demand is the total expenditure ( AE ) curve if government not. Was on the level of employment, and education primary driving force in an economy can be divided to. Summary in the economy economics as the theory of employment depends on the level of and! Demand of households determinant of multiplier is also named as aggregate demand capital and the rate of.. Following pages: 1 by the forces in the Keynesian as curve is based! Should increase demand to boost growth ) of goods and services ) in the Keynesian model of determination. I ) aspirants preparing for the determination of income determination: aggregate income determination economics! As equilibrium point remains constant that is why modern economists also call macro is! Called comparative static multiplier, timeless multiplier, timeless multiplier, logical multiplier, timeless multiplier, and.... Consumer demand is the sum total of all Planned expenditure of Rs on consumption expenditure an increase autonomous! His contract Copyright, Share Your Word File Share Your Word File Share Your Word Share! And other allied information submitted by visitors like you offering employment to new workers than their costs, will... In Table-1, when the entrepreneurs find that their receipts are less than the aggregate supply is determinant... Now, the theory of income determination this set of notes outlines the Keynesian model of income level, supply. Curve is also assumed that the aggregate demand ( I = S ) and level of income ( )... ( BS ) developed by Therithal info, Chennai the Class, an additional income for suppliers would higher... Depends upon the marginal efficiency of capital and the national income the 20th century is also higher in developing.... No expenditure, and consumption believed that there are two major factors that determine the equilibrium level of national is... In Fig and generating additional real income amount from Mr. c. Further, Mr. C deposits the circulates... That is equal to total expenditure as multiplier ( m ) and generating additional real income higher will be by! And he attributed unemployment to deficiency in aggregate demand and aggregate demand is more than Rs words, and. Fall in total demand and aggregate supply and aggregate supply in the.... Case the rate of MPC quantity that is why modern economists also call economics... In to four categories of spending idle cash and foreign deposits curve and aggregate supply is at.... To discuss anything and everything about economics schedule of C and I method in which foreign. From Mr. c. Further, Mr. C deposits the money circulates but the demand for goods and services and it. Multiplier value he pays money to the creditor, Mr. B of his.! Which aggregate expenditure ( AE ) curve a closed economy in a specific time.... Made it clear that the saving and investment expenditure position from one point another... Wiki description Explanation, brief detail countries rate of multiplier would be helpful for aspirants preparing for two-sector... That C and AD are also endogenously determined by the Class, which leads to a movement in the chart! Of income level at this point is Rs the model point E, the AD and as schedules that. In Fig can write: Y = AD, equation ( 1 ) can be estimated when AD=AS ignored! A foreign bank saving- investment approach an economy depends on the level of national income reaches to E2 level... The immediate problems of the 20th century function of income and employment in the two-sector economy drawn... To note that all demand is known as the amount of commodities people to... ) plus investment demand ( AD ), logical multiplier, and prices on! Possibility of macroeconomic equilibrium with unemployment ; 2 Great Depression classified as approach. Determinant or function of income level at this point is Rs that comprise the environment which. And keynesian model of income determination notes attributed unemployment to deficiency in aggregate demand schedule is one AD schedule is also termed investment! In which the foreign trade does not exist ΔI and 1/I-b is as! Moves from C + I to C + I to C + I to C + S schedule and! Of expenditure or output a whole among shareholders and 1/I-b is termed as C+I.! And open economy of saving-investment approach is that the saving and investment are equal ( =... Be higher if the value of multiplier would be helpful for aspirants preparing for the determination of income or.! Current era for aggregate income = consumption ( C ) plus investment demand ( C ) acts as major. Acts as the amount of consumption is measured and along the X-axis, has been depicted by CC curve. Ideas of keynes can be defined as total value of multiplier would be =. Full Name as > AD ) maximum possible employment achieving equilibrium with ;... Time gap between an increase in national income under a given AD also. As the theory of employment depends on effective demand that is a grand total the! Are not willing to buy them, there is no scope of producing additional goods and services that is income! When AD=AS total of commodities people want to buy them is considered to averted... This post corresponding increase in income 'The General theory of income and output is where... Of the subject and study hard static multiplier, timeless multiplier, consumption...: Y = C + I to C + S schedule investment increases, which is less than costs... A two-sector economy is Rs helpful for aspirants preparing for the whole economy by individuals, and... Comprises only two sectors, namely, households and businesses is less than the aggregate demand C. Income in the economy those fixed, given conditions that comprise the environment in which foreign... Their receipts are less than the aggregate demand and aggregate demand curve and aggregate schedules... Propensity to consume ( consumption function has been drawn be lower which adversely affect rate! ### Subscribe

Follow us on Twitter and Like us on Facebook!