Madec L, 1989. Snyman RG, Reinecke AJ, Reinecke SA, 2009. Sexual selection, dispersal and reproductive behaviour in hermaphrodite land snails, with particular reference to Helix aspersa muller (Pulmonata: Gastropoda). Albuquerque de Matos R, 1979. Fruits with snail damage (up to 35% of kiwifruit harvested) prior to harvest have significantly more Botrytis cinerea grey mould than fruits without damage (Michailides and Elmer, 2000). Mulvey M, Newman MC, Beeby AN, 1996. Reischütz PL, 2002. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 114(1):85-100. Fearnley RH, 1993. comm., 2009, First reported: 1600s; Original citation: Madec (1989), Snail farming; Original citation: W Wang, Pharmacom Corp., USA, pers. Brown garden snail, Helix aspersa Müller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Helicidae). They were still effective 12 months after application, and are recommended as a long-term control method. Bailey SER, 1975. Malacologia, 47(1/2):397 pp. In South African viticultural regions, C. aspersum causes crop losses up to 25%. Turkish Journal of Zoology. The snails deposit white spherical or oval eggs about 3-5 mm in diameter in a cavity 4-7 cm deep that the snail has dug out of moist, loose soil with its foot. It seems that initial colonization of north-western Europe by the Romans, who initiated snail farming, largely contributed to the massive and rapid dissemination of the species throughout the northern part of its range. Biological control of snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 33(2):209-216. A, Physiology, 118(4):1103-1114. Heredity. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 32:219-241. Flechtmann C H W, Baggio D, 1985. There are few studies on the impacts of C. aspersum in its natural habitat, as it is essentially a pest in human-disturbed habitats. Helix aspersa (Müller) - European Brown Garden Snail. However, as most of these predatory snails are not host-specific, they are not appropriate to use in control programmes in which effects on non-target species are of concern (Cowie, 2001: Barker and Watts, 2002). [English title not available]. Inligtingsbulletin - Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse. Courtship and dart shooting behavior of the land snail Helix aspersa. Evidence for aestivation specific proteins in Otala lactea. Uygun N, Sekeroglu E, 1987. Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy. Clutches vary in number of eggs from about 40 to 100 that are clustered together and joined by a sticky, colourless mucus. Micron. Germain L, 1908. Smith B J, 1992. The role of dart shooting and the related mucus gland in sperm competition has been extensively studied in C. aspersum (Rogers and Chase, 2001; Chase and Blanchard, 2006; Chase and Vaga, 2006; Chase and Darbison, 2008). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 68:127-131. The shell also shows from zero to five reddish brown to blackish spiral bands superimposed on the ground colour and usually interrupted such that the ground colour appears as yellow flecks or streaks breaking up the bands; the bands are occasionally separated by a median white spiral line (fascia albata). Physiological ecology of land snails and slugs. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Control of pest snails and slugs. Heredity, 72(1):23-35. adaptive responses to the variation in landscape structure and environmental pressures. Genetic and adaptive characteristics in Helix aspersa of direct interest in snail farming. C. aspersum inhabits sheltered places and is generally found in areas of base rich soils, hedge banks, sea cliffs, quarries, graveyards, urban gardens and neglected waste ground. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Heineck et Faber, 1-214 pp. Barker G M, Pottinger R P, Lloyd J M, Addison P J, Firth A C, Stewart A P, 1991. do Azji, Australii i obu Ameryk. They are native go Europe, though have spread elsewhere. (Consequences des introductions d'especes animals et vegetales sur la biodiversite en Nouvelle-Caledonie.). 60 (3), 205-214. C. aspersum can be used as a bioindicator of soil and atmospheric pollution. comm., 2009, AW Janssen, National Museum of Natural History, The Netherlands, pers. du Gal Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France, Luc Madec, Université de Rennes UMR CNRS 6553 ECOBIO, Campus de Beaulieu, Bât. Growers take the animals each morning into the orchard for as little as half an hour to scavenge for food. Feneglio C, Scherini E, Necchi D, Soldani C, Bernocchi G, 1997. The giant form maxima (D > 40 mm) can be distinguished by its pigmentation (dark colour of the mantle edge) and by a very large shell aperture (megalostoma). Charrier M, Rouland C, 1992. Diet varies over the life cycle: in hatchling snails, oophagy during the hatching period inside the hollow in which the clutch was laid has been reported, significantly enhancing growth and survivorship (Desbuquois and Madec, 1998); after a few days, this behaviour is lost. Evolutionary history of the land snail Helix aspersa in the Western Mediterranean: preliminary results inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. In: Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 30 209-225. Some terrestrial Gastropoda from New Mexico. http://www.pestnet.org. During dormancy, snails bury in the soil or crawl into crevices among rocks, retire into their shells and produce a calcareous and mucous epiphragm sealing the shell aperture (Barnhart, 1983). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. 24 (7), 1187-1202. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture. SANBI Biodiversity Series, 15: vi + 108 pp. Helix aspersa (Gastropoda Pulmonata) in The Gambia, West Africa. The product was tested in both spray and granular formulations against C. aspersum in a vineyard and a citrus orchard in Western Australia, where it was compared with copper oxychloride spray. 245:1-2. Roman colonization. Morphometric and genetic insights for three terrestrial snails in Taif province of Saudi Arabia. Oviposition occurs about 2 weeks after fertilization and its duration is from 10 to 35 hours. C. aspersum is a generalist species, found in a large range of habitats and climates, from Mediterranean to temperate, oceanic and tropical (Chevallier, 1977). Growth patterns and morphological features of juvenile Helix aspersa from west Texas. Heliciculture is also performed in many other countries (e.g. Life cycle and growth of the escargot (Helix aspersa Müller) reared in Thailand. The number of chromosomes and chiasma frequencies seem variable. Genetics, Selection, Evolution, 29(6):571-587. [English title not available]. Few accidental introductions have been recorded. Stearns REC, 1900. Washington DC, USA: USDA. Naturalised terrestrial Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda). 25 (1), 35-37. Machin J, 1975. NBN Atlas Wales. Publicaçoes Ocasionais da Sociedade Portuguesa de Malacologia, 5:15-60. In: Institute of Fish Facility - company profile and catalog list. However, they do not totally control snails and must be used properly and in conjunction with other methods (physical, biological) in integrated management (Flint, 2003). 42 (2), 687-695. Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774) is the single species in the genus Cornu Born, 1778. Chung DJD, 1987. Sofia/Moskva (Pensoft). 312 pp., 142 plates. The copper complex spray demonstrated a high level of repellence to C. aspersum for extended periods in the field, and proved superior to the other products tested in reducing snail numbers in vines/trees. Metcalf AL, Smartt RA, 1997. The Host Plants/Plants Affected table does not cover all plants that C. aspersum will feed on, as the list is so extensive but aims to provide an insight to the well-known species affected. Heliciculture, as with other mini-livestock production efforts, represents a new branch of sustainable animal production promoted by the Bureau for Exchange and Distribution of Information on Mini-livestock (BEDIM) in Belgium under the auspices of the European Union and FAO (Hardouin and Thys, 1997). Lines of lime and copper sulphate or copper screen are repellent to snails and can be used to prevent movement into an area. In: Proceedings of the 5th British Insecticides and Fungicides Conference 2:453-457. What information is available? Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, série III, 448:425-442. Journal of Molluscan Studies. Integrated assessment of heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cd) highway pollution: bioaccumulation in soil, Graminaceae and land snails. As other European helicids, C. aspersum, especially the maxima form has been introduced recently to Israel for food (Roll et al., 2008). Biological control of Limax maximus and Helix aspersa by indigenous predators in a daisy field in central coastal California. Mollecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 143:15-20. Molluscicidal trial against land snail (Helix aspera, Gastropoda, Mollusca). Removal of the lower branches of trees by pruning can minimize the contact of the foliage with the ground and help to reduce the number of C. aspersum on the trees. 4. List of species and atlas of the non-marine molluscs of Albania. The influence of photoperiod, temperature and internal factors on the hibernation of Helix pomatia L. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Metabolism of land snails (Otala lactea) during dormancy, arousal and activity. Sacchi (1971) suggested that reproduction is potentially continuous and might occur during all sufficiently wet and warm periods of the year, as supposed for populations in La Réunion (Madec and Daguzan, 1993). Spatial genetic pattern in the land mollusc Helix aspersa inferred from a "center-based clustering" procedure. Guiller et al., 2001). 8: Non-marine Mollusca. A, Physiology, 108(1):65-67. Naturalised terrestrial Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda). In snail farms, a dry food (powder or pellets) is often used, composed of cereal flour (essentially soya, corn, wheat, sunflower, rye, oats) and enriched in vitamins and calcium. Adult shells (4½ to 5 slightly convex whorls) measure 28-45 mm in diameter, 25-35 mm in height (Kerney and Cameron, 1979). 42 (1), 51-54. Calvé Dle, 1995. Mandaio, Oza dos Rios, Galicia, Spain. (Aspetti morphologici ed etologici dell'accoppiamento in alcune specie della famiglia Helicida.) (1982) was carried out in a daisy field in northern California to determine the effectiveness of the indigenous coleopterous predator Scaphinotus striatopunctatus in the biological control of C. aspersum. , Cornu aspersum ( common snail, Helix aspersa ) differing in shell deposition of lead in three of... While Glinus sp at http: //link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00360/contents/02/00290/, APHIS, 2002 through ontogeny and response to selection increased! Elevated humidity of 75-90 % ( Daguzan, 1995 Perspectives, 114 ( 1 ):51-54 des terrains marins,! And 6 hours after sunset shell shape of the land snails of Britain and North-west.! Record of terrestrial mollusk Helix lucorum ( Pulmonata, Helicidae, 1979 prevent snails getting access to plants genetic phenotypic... Petit-Gris: Helix aspersa Müller. ). ). ). /em..., Iglesias J, 1996 ; New York, Springer-Verlag 20and % 20slugs.pdf features of juvenile aspersa... 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